Animal health specialists meeting in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, yesterday agreed to try to rid the world of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a viral disease devastating goat and sheep flocks throughout Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Control efforts have fallen short. The time has come for a “bolder next step,” said José Graziano da Silva, director-general of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, at the meeting FAO organized with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to kick off a global eradication program.Also called ovine rinderpest, PPR kills up to 90% of the animals it infects within days. The virus has spread rapidly over the past 15 years and is now present in 70 countries, putting 80% of the world’s more than 2 billion goat and sheep at risk. FAO estimates that the disease causes more than $2 billion in losses annually and is an economic disaster for the small herders and poor rural households that depend on the animals for milk, meat, wool, and leather both for their own use and for trade.The eradication plan envisions a staged approach. The assessment phase requires determining the numbers and locations of flocks most at risk and building veterinary capabilities. Then control efforts relying on voluntary vaccination will hopefully lead to an endgame in which authorities might enforce vaccination. The final step would be for countries to verify that there have been no PPR cases within their borders for at least 24 months. FAO and OIE believe they will need $4 billion to $7 billion over the next 15 years to accomplish their goal.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)There is a reliable PPR vaccine, though the organizations would like to see improvements made to extend its shelf life in hot climates. They note that strengthening veterinary capabilities would also benefit efforts to combat other diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease, and improve animal health overall. The plan builds on lessons from the successful eradication of rinderpest, a disease caused by a related virus that had plagued cattle for millennia. After several failed attempts to control rinderpest, FAO launched a Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme in 1993 and declared the disease vanquished in 2011. It was the first time in history that an animal virus had been eradicated.Paul Rossiter, a U.K.-based veterinary consultant who was involved in the rinderpest campaign, notes that the PPR effort starts with a number of advantages. Diagnostic and tracking tools not available in the early days of the rinderpest program are now ready to go for use against PPR. These include tests for antibodies and to identify different viral strains. But he also flags challenges in the field. Many herders and local vets are still unfamiliar with PPR, which can be confused with other infections. And the large numbers of sheep and goats, as well as the rapid replacement rate of the animals, will complicate efforts to attain sufficient levels of herd immunity to stop virus transmission. Thus Rossiter believes that a central challenge facing the PPR eradication program will be developing wider ranging and more imaginative vaccine programs.
Facebook Twitter: @NeosKosmos Instagram A Greek court this week convicted a policeman of murder and sentenced him to life imprisonment for the shooting of a 15-year-old whose death sparked massive riots in Athens two years ago. A panel of judges and jurors at a court in the tiny remote mountain town of Amfissa found the 38-year-old police officer, Epaminodas Korkoneas, guilty of intentionally shooting Alexandros Grigoropoulos on December 6, 2008 in central Athens. A second officer, 32-year-old Vassileos Saraltiotis, was convicted of complicity and sentenced to 10 years in prison. The policemen claim the teenager died from a ricocheting bullet when the officers fired a warning shot after they came under attack from the youths during a night patrol in Exarchia. The lawyer for the two officers said they would both appeal the sentences.The outcome is a source of grim satisfaction for the family of 15-year-old Alexandros Grigoropoulos, who had fully expected Korkoneas to be convicted of murder.Alexandros’ mother, Gina Tsakilian, who runs a jewellery store in Athens, was highly distressed by attempts by Korkoneas’ defence team to paint her son as a trouble maker and the verdict helps to restore his memory.“Justice has been done,” a spokesman for Ms Tsakilian said. “Of course, Alexandros is not coming back, but at least what is important for the family is that his good name has been restored.”Alexis Kouyias, the lawyer for Korkoneas, criticized the procedures used during the eight-month trial, including the failure to examine testimony from a key witness. He said Korkoneas would appeal, exercising his automatic right under Greek law.“I am confident that the court decisions to follow will be different to this one,” he said.The teenager’s death sparked massive riots in cities across the country, lasting two weeks and causing extensive damage to state buildings, businesses and cars. The Greek capital has since been beset by violent protests and multiple bombings against police stations, banks and state agencies by leftist and anarchist groups. The violence has left one policeman dead and seven wounded, several seriously. Source: Deutsche Press, BBC, AP